Jazz life in Czechoslovakia was marked by denying artistic freedom in choices of genres and styles where communist ideology determined the right artistic orientation. Cultural politics in 1948 – 1989 largely influenced not only artistic form of jazz but also management of music life (such as organization of concerts, publishing LPs, radio broadcasting and etc.). These were the main reasons for immigration of jazzmen abroad. In the first phase of immigration artistic reasons predominated, in the second phase there were more existential problems of artists and their endeavor to improve their material conditions and artistic status where they had ambitions to also interact with the international development of jazz. The majority of immigrants moved to the USA, Canada, Brazil, Argentina and Australia. There is an estimate that in 1948 – 1967 approximately 255 000 people left Czechoslovakia, in 1968 – 89 approximately 244 597 people left, among whom approximately 100 000 were Slovak. In the article we are including a list of jazzmen that left during the communist era.