During emerging punk and new wave in former socialist countries possibilities of musicians varied immensely. Differences among musicians were associated with distinctive cultural and political climate in particular countries in the period from 1977 to 1989. While musicians in Yugoslavia and Poland were able to protect their artistic freedom, Czechoslovak rock musicians kept their underground position; participating at the club scene or moving to pop music. Radical attitude in underground helped to create Czech alternative scene as subculture, contrary Slovak musicians were part of the club scene and local activities. That was the main reason why Slovak new wave scene emerged much earlier than punk scene. Different conditions for development were important factors for success in Polish and Yugoslavian (Slovenian, Croatian…) rock abroad, but also for commencement of alternative and indie scene. The paper brings not only comparison of social and political situation and conditions for development of rock music in certain countries, but also character of new wave and punk music.